Criteria used by its title

J. Aviles, volume I, pages 161 of 1725 and 179 of 1780, quarterly

As far as possible, in I use the heraldic laws of the coat of arms by Jose de Aviles and Iturbide, marquis of Aviles, in his books in 2 volumes [Avilés, J.; 1725a] and [Avilés, J.; 1725b].

But in some cases, for example: a) when I do not find the criteria in these volumes and I have to consult other authors to whom I refer in the bibliography or b) when the doubt is not so much heraldic as of style, artistic technique, historical, linguistic, etc. After studying the case, I then establish my own criteria or I choose the one that seems to me the best reasoned of other authors and heralds and I leave it here written.

Naturally, I am open and grateful to all possible criticisms to these heraldic criteria, that can be sent to , and to review these criteria always with a spirit of improvement.

~ I ~

Separador heráldico
Escudo de Castilla y León Libro abierto, hojas de plata, filo de oro, guardas de gules, tapas de sable.

Pastoureau, M.; 1997

Michel Pastoureau and Francisca Garvie, «Heraldry: Its Origins and Meaning», New Horizons collection, edited by Thames and Hudson, London, 1997.

Bibliographical reference of century XX.

The author is Pastoureau, Michel.

Separador heráldico
Escudo de Castilla y León Libro abierto, hojas de plata, filo de oro, guardas de gules, tapas de sable.

The Heraldry Society; 2013

The Heraldry Society, Education Pack, A brief explanation of Heraldry

The Heraldry Society, «Education Pack, A brief explanation of Heraldry for teachers together with explanatory sheets and templates for students», Baldock, Hertfordshire, 2013.

This bibliographical reference is illustrated with the quartered coat of arms of The Heraldry Society.

Bibliographical reference of century XXI.

Author: The Heraldry Society.

The following article cites this bibliographic reference:

External link:

Internal resources: TheHeraldrySociety2013.EducationPack.pdf.

Separador heráldico
Escudo de Castilla y León

Heraldry societies

Heralds International, badge of the heraldic artists

I am:

  • heraldic artist member of the Society of Heraldic Arts,
  • member of The Heraldry Society,
  • honoured member of The International Heraldry Society,
  • heraldic artist member of Heralds International,
  • correspondent fellow of the Asturian Academy of Heraldry and Genealogy,
  • correspondent fellow of the Institute of Historical Research Bances y Valdés, Principality of Asturias,
  • correspondent fellow of the Academia de Letras e Artes da Guiné-Bissau, and
  • honorary pursuivant of arms extraordinary of the Heraldry Society of Africa.
Separador heráldico
Escudo de Castilla y León

Location map

The following map shows the location of my studio in Madrid in the Paseo de la Castellana 135, just where the street of Sor Angela de la Cruz is born from the Plaza de Cuzco.

Contacto05 22 Mapa jpg

The sculpture of straight bars of stainless steel rotated around an axis made by Andreu Alfaro in 1979, with its 12 meters high, helps the location of my studio.

Contacto05 23 Castellana135 jpg

Credits: Andreu Alfaro is the author of the sculpture.

Separador heráldico
Escudo de Castilla y León Libro abierto, hojas de plata, filo de oro, guardas de gules, tapas de sable.

Emblemata; 1999

Baron of Valdeolivos Emblematic Chair, of the Fernando el Catolico Institution, of the Centre of Scientific Research (C. S. I. C.) and of the Government of Zaragoza, «Emblemata», Volume 5th, Emblemata Aragonese Magazine about Emblems (E. R. A. E.), 484 pages, 124 pictures, ISSN 1137-1056, Legal deposit Z.3.937 1996, printed by the Cooperativa de Artes Gráficas Librería General, Zaragoza, 1999.

Bibliographical reference of century XX.

Classification: Magazine and Castilian language.

The author is Cátedra de Emblemática Barón de Valdeolivos.

External resource:

Separador heráldico
Escudo de Castilla y León

Freedom and legitimacy to adopt arms

In Spain we are all legitimated to adopt and have our own coat of arms, it is a privilege that we can give ourselves in a pure exercise of freedom, is a right that has been passed down to us throughout our history, and it is as beautiful and simple as it seems.

MartosJC 27 SoporteUno jpg

Fernando Garcia-Mercadal and García-Loygorri is one of the experts who best described this idea when he writes: «It is the adoption itself... the original way of acquiring a personal blazon that consists of the intellectual of a new coat of arms by whom it intends to make it his own, having the capacity and intention to assume it and subject it to heraldic laws and customs...» and on the basis of it makes us notice that «it can be maintained that every person... has the right, nowadays, to take on new arms, with the exception of blazons owned by others or the acquisition of one which is contrary to law». According to the same author, the proper adoption of a coat of arms has 3 outstanding features [García-Mercadal y García-Loygorri, F.; 2012; page 281]:

  • «Is an act... that can have legal effects,... which implies an intellectual creation,... the mental invention of a certain form and contents that in Western culture are known as coat of arms or blazon»,
  • «Has an identifiable purpose, inasmuch as its object is to be represented by means of the same and, as the case may be, transmit it to its heirs» and
  • «is not an act of free will, since the suitor must submit his armories to design rules».
Separador heráldico

Sigue por: Conception, a phase with three activities.


Dr. Antonio Salmerón y Cabañas,
Paseo de la Castellana 135, 7th floor,
28046 Madrid, Spain.